Siirry sisältöön

Kielitietoisemmassa koulussa olisi vastaavasti aika tunnistaa ja tunnustaa erityisesti vastasaapuneiden opetuksen parissa työskentelevien rooli monikielisyyden ammattilaisina.

Kielitietoisessa koulussa olisi aika tunnistaa ja tunnustaa erityisesti vastasaapuneiden opetuksen parissa työskentelevien rooli monikielisyyden ammattilaisina.

”Mitä jakaa olikaan saksaksi, what is divide in German?”, kysyy opettaja somalia ensikielenään puhuvalta oppilaalta, joka on viettänyt aiemmat kouluvuotensa Sveitsissä ja tullut Suomeen joitain kuukausia sitten. Vastauksen opettajan kysymykseen saksaksi tarjoaa oppilas, joka puhuu ensikielenään bulgariaa. Hetken päästä opettajan ajan yksiköitä käsittelevään tehtäväksiantoon kuuluu luokasta vastaus: ”Ope, se on satakaksikymmentäkhamsa”. Vastauksen viimeinen lukusana khamsa, ’viisi’ on arabiaa. Äskeiset tilanteet yläkoulun valmistavan luokan matematiikan tunnilta ovat varsin tavanomaisia esimerkkejä luokkahuoneiden monikielisestä arjesta, jossa yhteisymmärrystä rakennetaan tukeutumalla suomen kielen lisäksi osanottajien muuhun kielitaitoon.

Monikielisyystutkimuksessa yllä olevia käytänteitä kutsutaan limittäiskieleilyksi (engl. translanguaging). Teoreettisena lähestymistapana limittäiskieleily haastaa perinteiset näkökulmat kielitaitoon ja kielenoppimiseen. Kielitaito ei ole kielittäin eriytyneitä kokonaisuuksia, vaan ennemminkin yhtenäinen kielellisten resurssien varanto, jota vuorovaikutuksessa hyödynnetään joustavasti ja joka rakentuu aina suhteessa aiemmin opittuun. Tästä näkökulmasta olemassa olevat kielelliset resurssit ovat pedagoginen voimavara, jolla voidaan tukea paitsi uuteen kieleen sosiaalistumista myös eri aineiden sisältöjen oppimista. Tutkimustuloksetkin osoittavat, että vahvat ensikielen taidot tukevat niin uuden kielen oppimista kuin sisältöaineissa pärjäämistä.

Irina Piippo haastaa opettajia pohtimaan luokkansa monikielisiä käytänteitä Vastaantulon työpajassa 2.11.2018

Kielen keskeisyys kaikessa opetuksessa ja oppimisessa on vahvasti näkyvissä viimeisimmissä perusopetuksen opetussuunnitelman perusteissa, joita otetaan parhaillaan käyttöön perusopetuksen eri osa-alueilla. Dokumentissa puhutaan kielitietoisesta toimintakulttuurista, jonka perusajatuksena on kielellisen monimuotoisuuden tunnistaminen ja tunnustaminen sekä se, että eri kielille annetaan tilaa koulun arjessa. Monikielisyyttä avataan toteamalla, että kaikki oppilaat kielitaustasta riippumatta ovat monikielisiä ja että koulun abstraktimpi tapa käyttää kieltä on uusi myös opetuskieltä ensikielenään käyttäville oppilaille.

Kielitietoinen koulu tekee jokaisesta opettajasta oman oppiaineensa kielen ja tekstikäytänteiden opettajan. Kielitietoisemmassa koulussa olisi vastaavasti aika tunnistaa ja tunnustaa erityisesti vastasaapuneiden opetuksen parissa työskentelevien rooli monikielisyyden ammattilaisina. Jos kielitaito ymmärretään yhtenäisenä kielellisten resurssien varantona, erillisten kielten taitojen sijaan näkökulmana tulisi olla oppilaiden monikielisyyden kehittäminen uuteen kieleen sosiaalistumien ensimetreistä alkaen. Vaikka esimerkiksi valmistavilla luokilla luokkahuoneiden käytänteet ovat usein monikielisiä ja monikielisyys on osin valjastettu myös pedagogiseksi voimavaraksi, monikielisyys ei vielä näy opetusta jäsentävänä periaatteena. Opetusta ja eri opettajien rooleja hahmotetaan edelleen nimetyt kielet edellä niin ettei oppilaiden monikielisyys ole erityisesti kenenkään vastuualuetta. Valmistavan luokan opettajat ja S2-opettajat opettavat suomea, oman äidinkielen opettajat oppilaan ensikieltä, mutta usein vasta valmistavan vaiheen jo päätyttyä. Lisäksi oman äidinkielen opetus on usein järjestetty keskitetysti niin, ettei opettajien monialainen yhteistyö ole käytännössä edes toteutettavissa.

Arki valmistavan opetuksen luokkahuoneissa on monikielistä siltojen rakentamista aiempien kielten ja uuden koulukielen sekä aiempien kokemusten ja uuden ympäristön välillä. Jotta oppilaiden monikielisyyttä ja opettajien työtä näissä luokkahuoneissa voitaisiin tukea, tarvitaan vielä näkökulmamuutosta, jossa kielitaito nähdään kokonaisvaltaisemmin monikielisyytenä kuin yksittäisten kielten taitoina. Tämän näkökulmamuutoksen tulisi yltää opetuksen järjestelyihin ja opettajien koulutukseen saakka.

Kirjoittaja Irina Piippo on monikielisyystutkija, joka on tarkastellut limittäiskieleilyä niin peruskoulun valmistavilla luokilla kuin aikuisten kotoutumiskoulutuksessa


Lähteet

García, Ofelia (2009) Education, multilingualism and translanguaging in the 21st century. -  Mohanty, Ajit, Minati Panda, Robert Phillipson & Tove Skutnabb-Kangas. (toim.) Multilingual Education for Social Justice: Globalising the local, s. 128-145. New Delhi: Orient Blackswan.

Li, Wei (2018) Translanguaging as a practical theory of language. Applied Linguistics 39 (1) 9–30.

May, S. 2016. Bilingual education: What the research tells us. In O. García, A. Lin, S. May (eds) Bilingual and Multilingual Education. Encyclopedia of Language and Education(3rd ed.). Springer: Cham, 81–100.

Perusopetuksen opetussuunnitelman perusteet 2014. Opetushallitus, Helsinki. Viitattu 5.11.2018. https://www.oph.fi/saadokset_ja_ohjeet/opetussuunnitelmien_ja_tutkintojen_perusteet/perusopetus

Perusopetuksen valmistavan opetuksen perusteet 2015. Opetushallitus, Helsinki. Viitattu 5.11.2018. https://www.oph.fi/saadokset_ja_ohjeet/opetussuunnitelmien_ja_tutkintojen_perusteet/perusopetus/valmistava_opetus

Meeting in the Middle's PhD student Tatsiana Shestunova writes about a few early findings in her research, based on the interviews of teachers in preparatory education.

One of the Meeting in the Middle project’s strands is my research focused on preparatory education teachers. The central question of the study is What is it like to be a teacher for multilingual children in a Finnish preparatory class? The aim of the research is to understand the challenges teachers have in their everyday work with multilingual learners and to reveal support factors vital for teachers' work.  

The research is carried out in the form of interviews. The language of the interview is English. Each teacher will be interviewed twice. The 1st round of interviews discusses teachers’ needs, concerns and the challenges they meet when working with diverse students, how they deal with those and what support they expect. The 2nd round of interviews will be held one year later to understand if any changes occurred in teachers’ work, their opinions and attitudes. The questions for the first interview are divided into 7 thematic units including teacher’s background, their attitudes to recently arrived students and the challenges they cause; support to teachers and networking. 

Up to the present, six teachers participated in the first round. They teach students in the capital area and in Central Finland. It is too early to make any conclusions, however we decided to share some interesting findings with you. 

Do recently arrived students create challenges?

Teachers do not consider recently arrived students as challenging. According to them, we should not label all the problems in the classroom as immigrant problems. Children might have teenage, or psychological problems which are not related to their immigrant status. On the other hand, teachers recognize that in the beginning, immigrant children have more problems than the Finnish kids and they compare them with first-graders, when kids come to school and don’t know yet anything about how the school functions.  

Even though teachers do not call them challenges, there are some issues with parents and cultural difference. Teachers agree that it is important to respect each other and to be culturally sensitive and responsive. 

Teachers and support

Teachers do need support. The main horizons are support from school administration, colleagues, school staff and parents. Some teachers complain on lack of attention from the administration side. The luckiest teachers seem to be those working in schools with several preparatory classes. In this case, preparatory teachers have good opportunity to meet, discuss and share their materials. This co-operation seems to be working well especially in cases, where siblings are in two different preparatory classes of the same school.

Usually school staff is ready to collaborate and to help, but in some situations, other school teachers perceive it as an extra work and don’t want to carry out support. 

Multilingualism in the class

All the teachers who participated in the interview support the idea of multilingualism and discuss the importance to promote and develop students’ native language. They say that if there are several students in their classrooms who share the same language, it is even easier to work with them as they can help to each other. 

Afterthoughts

The research is only at its initial phase. However, it is important, because even though we acknowledge the multilingual turn and the need to know about it, quite often, we concentrate our efforts on majority, i.e. on students and their parents. We forget about people without whom this process can’t exist – about teachers. Moreover, even when we remember them, we study teachers from the point of view of newcomers’ wellbeing and forget that they deserve to be discussed, to be supported and valued. This research is not going to change the world. Nevertheless, if it is able to attract the attention to the issues discussed, it will be good. 

Tatsiana Shestunova

Linda Molin-Karakocin kommentoitu tiivistelmä Gudrun Svenssonin ja Intisar Khalidin artikkelista Transspråkande för utveckling av flerspråkighet. (2017)*

Translanguaging and the history of language in Swedish education

Svensson & Khalid’s (2017) article focuses on translanguaging and its role in the development of multilingualism. The authors define translanguaging in education as a method used by teachers that systematically builds on and draws from the full linguistic repertoires of multilingual students.  In the article, the traditionally monocultural view of learning (with its monolinguistic emphasis) is discussed. The Swedish Home Language Reform in 1977 was influential in promoting a multicultural view of learning but has failed to incorporate a so-called interlinguistic theory of learning, one in which the mother tongue has an equal standing with other school subjects. In line with Garcia (2009), the authors call for more flexible, interlinguistic approaches to teaching in which first and second languages should not be treated as distinct but interwoven entities that can develop by means of constant interaction.

Theoretical framework

Svensson & Khalid’s (2017) study is premised on Cummins’ theory of (2007) common underlying profiency (CUP) and Garcia’s (2009) notion of dynamic bilingualism. The authors follow Garcias (2009) two principles, social justice and social practice, for implementing translanguaging practices into the curriculum. Social justice refers to generating positive attitudes towards multilingualism and social practice involves the creation of meaningful contexts (including clear and consistent strategies) for the utilization of students’ linguistic resources. As a rationale for this approach, the authors refer to Baker (2001), who argues that tapping into multiple linguistic resources in the classroom carries two important effects for the development of language: (1) the weaker of the two (or more) languages will be supported and further developed and (2) it facilitates scaffolding when more knowledgeable students can collaborate with their less knowledgeable peers. Moreover, translanguaging as a means to developed and sustained multilingualism is mentioned as well as some of the fruits translanguaging typically bears, e.g. positive identity formation, content knowledge support and an improvement in the home and school partnership. The focus in this study is on multingual development and the link between home and school.

The study: data, participants and methodology

The longitudinal (three-year-long) study took place in a fourth grade classroom at a Swedish middle school. Interviews were held with 22 students and their parents. Neither the students nor the staff had any prior experience in translanguaging practices at the school and the curriculum had been monolinguistic in all school subjects despite mother tongue tuition. The teacher maintained a monolinguistic role in the course of the study to support interactive, contextual peer learning. The first of Garcia’s (2009) two principles (social justice), was addressed by building positive attitudes among the students and, after some persuasion, among their parents towards the inclusion of translanguaging practices in the school curriculum. The second of Garcia’s (2009) principles (social practice) was realized in four phases:

Phase 1 – Under teacher guidance, the students learned about and discussed different ecosystems in class

Phase 2 - The students were told to complete homework (translation and vocabulary acquisition) in their native languages in collaboration with their parents

Phase 3 – During a second class, the students worked on the task in groups to fill in potential gaps of knowledge and discuss learning strategies used at home

Phase 4 - A teacher-led, whole-class review of the task was carried out by means of interlinguistic comparisons, discussions and exemplifications. Lastly, the students received homework on sustainable development for the ecosystems in their countries of origin.

A case-study of three students and their parents was conducted to highlight parental opinions on translanguaging practices and their attitudes to the students’ language development as well as to elicit student perceptions of their own language skills and student-parent cooperation.

Results and discussion

The findings of Svensson and Khalid’s (2017) study demonstrate that parents are well-disposed towards multilingual practices at the school. Whereas parental rationales for developing skills in Swedish were more or less identical (Swedish skills are needed for a continued life in Sweden), their reasoning for students to develop skills in their first language varied and emphasized either better cognition, communication or ability to partake in religious matters. None of the parents associated multilingual practices with the development of bilingualism. Among the students, a difference of opinions pertaining to the perceived usefulness of translanguaging in school subjects emerged. Although two students did not find translanguaging particularly helpful, the first and second language skills of one of these students improved significantly during the course of the study.  The authors explain this by referring to Baker’s (2001) claim that the more developed language helps bolster the less developed one.  The study also showed that work methods between students and parents mattered, and that the use of simplification strategies in homework assignments led to more negative attitudes towards translanguaging and less development in the student’s first language. By comparison, as seen in the case of one student, the parents’ adoption of a nonhierarchical role in supporting first language skills resulted in a better disposition towards translanguaging, offered mental and practical help and led to tangible improvements in both languages for the student.

Svensson and Khalid’s (2017) research carries important implications for translanguaging in education. First, for development to occur, parental support should aim at advanced skills in multiple languages. In this respect, the strategies used to carry out translanguaging are of importance and simplification should be avoided.  Secondly, despite previous concerns about parents’ inadequate skills in Swedish, the parents’ role in the development of multilingualism among the students should not be underestimated. As shown by the example above, by providing moral and practical support, the parents are able to bolster interlinguistic interaction, memory and understanding, regardless of their own Swedish language proficiency. Thirdly, content knowledge should not be confused with linguistic competence which so often happens among multilingual students in monolinguistic environments. Parental input ought to be viewed in light of opportunities for intellectual and cognitive development for the students and a portrayal of parents as competent co-educators alongside teachers has to be encouraged. Lastly, linguistic resources provided in the student’s mother tongue classes are not sufficient for a desirable, advanced multilingual development as a gap between mother tongue tuition and other subjects remains to this day. As opposed to two distinct lines of inquiry, the relationship between the mother tongue and other school subjects can and should be consolidated through translanguaging activities at school. As the authors conclude, translanguaging can help pave way for connecting teachers, students and parents, resulting in advanced multilingual skills among a higher number of multilingual students.

Implications for further research

Svensson and Khalid’s (2017) study provides educators with an interesting idea of how to approach multilingualism and the development of the students’ first and second languages at school. Although the authors themselves did not recognize limitations, further research is needed to validate their findings. It is advisable that the study (or a closely related one) is replicated in Finnish classrooms, preferably with heterogeneous student bodies, to arrive at further conclusions about translanguaging and its effects.

Secondly, to address the complex web of parental support (which is voluntary and may show inconsistency), more attention ought to be devoted to how parents are to be informed about translanguaging support and a follow-up on their support. Moreover, in order to attribute the development of language skills to its legitimate sources, a look at other factors (e.g. peer learning outcomes) than parental support is in order. Thirdly, since the study focuses on parents and students as opposed to teachers, considerations of how to evoke positive attitudes towards translanguaging practices among teachers (especially monolingual ones) are conspicuously missing from the discourse. In Svensson and Khalid’s (2017) study, the teacher is bilingual and thus likely to view bi/multilingualism in favorable terms. For monolingual teachers to embrace the idea of translanguaging, so that it does not appear as extra work[1], more research on translanguaging and its direct impact on student achievement (and assessment) has to be conducted.

Fourthly, what is missing from the discourse is the ‘lingua bias’, or one of the so-called Post-Multilingualism challenges[2]. Translanguaging should not only be considered in terms of student engagement with multiple, named languages but as the utilization of multiple semiotic and cognitive resources (i.e. non-linguistic forms of expression). Care needs to be taken not to project any preconceptions about the students’ preferred use of named languages (‘Somalians should develop skills in Somali”), preferred forms of expression (“Translanguaging practices should either be written or oral”) or preferred identities/ownerships (“Migrant students identify themselves as either bi- or multilinguals, with a certain country”). Thus, for translanguaging to truly work, constant negotiations and renegotiations of place, languages and identities among students should be given prominence.

 

[1] Saloviita, T., & Schaffus, T. (2016). Teacher attitudes towards inclusive education in Finland and Brandenburg, Germany and the issue of extra work. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 31 (4), 458-471.

[2] Wei, Li. (2017). Translanguaging as a Practical Theory of Language. Applied Linguistics 2017, 00 (0): 1-23.

Linda Molin-Karakoc is a PhD student at the Department of Psychology and Human Development, Institute of Education, University College London. She is conducting research on the role of social media in the integration of newly arrived migrant youth.

*Gudrun Svensson and Intisar Khalid's article Transspråkande för utveckling av flerspråkighet is published in a book edited by Pirjo Lahdenperä ja Eva Sundgren, Nyanlända, interkulturalitet och flerspråkighet i klassrummet (2017).

Emma Stens sammandrag av Anne Reath Warrens artikel Multilingual study guidance in the Swedish compulsory school and the development of multilingual literacies*

Anne Reath Warrens artikel Multilingual study guidance in the Swedish compulsory school and the development of multilingual literacies behandlar hur studiehandledning på modersmålet, vilket i artikeln benämns flerspråkig studiehandledning, stödjer flerspråkiga elevers lärande i ämnesundervisningen i den svenska grundskolan. Flerspråkig studiehandledning definieras som ett tillfälligt pedagogiskt stöd för flerspråkiga och särskilt för nyanlända elever baserad på flerspråkiga praktiker. Den flerspråkiga inlärningsmiljön skapas av att både läraren och eleverna använder alla gemensamma språkliga resurser för återkoppling och vidgad förståelse.

Under flerspråkig studiehandledningen får eleverna stöd i något eller några av skolans ämnen. Handledningen ges vanligtvis av en lärare som ger modersmålsundervisning i elevens förstaspråk. Läroböckerna är uteslutande svenskspråkiga, men såsom studien visar, sker kommunikationen mellan läraren och eleverna på flera än ett språk. (Av den orsaken har Reath Warren valt begreppet flerspråkig handledning istället för handledning på modersmålet). Studiehandledningen kan därmed stötta eleven att lära sig målspråket med hjälp av sina andra språk, samtidigt som handledningens fokus ligger i ämnesundervisning. Tidigare forskning har visat att flerspråkig studiehandledning bemöts positivt av lärare och elever. Reath Warrens studie fokuserade på vilka sätt flerspråkigheten tar sig till uttryck under studiehandledningen och hur dessa praktiker ger stöd åt eleverna till att uppnå lärandemålen i ämnesundervisningen.

Artikelns teoretiska utgångspunkter kommer från utvecklingen av flerspråkiga litteraciteter (Hornberger 1989; Hornberger & Skilton-Sylvester 2000), flerspråkiga praktiker och transspråkande (Garcia 2009; Garcia & Kleifgen 2010). Syftet med studien är att undersöka genom dessa teoretiska ramar hur nyanlända elever utvecklar litteraciteter i skolan på fler än ett språk. Med hänvisning till Hornberger och Link (2012) framläggs att flerspråkiga litteraciteter utvecklas under influens av språkets kontext, utveckling, innehåll samt media. Flerspråkiga klassrumspraktiker granskas utifrån teorier om transspråkande, i vilka flerspråkighet handlar om att tillvarata alla elevens språkliga resurser i kommunikation och i lärande.

Studien baserar sig på data från en större kvalitativ forskning med en lingvistisk etnografisk ansats. Kontexten för denna artikel är fyra olika flerspråkiga skolor i en svensk storstad. I studien som artikeln föregicks av gjordes observationer av 13 lektioner under vilka modersmålslärare i elevens förstaspråk gav flerspråkig studiehandledning. Lektionerna spelades in, transkriberades och översattes selektivt efter forskarens kriterier. Data kompletterades med anteckningar, bilder och andra klassrumsartefakter. Sammanlagt 17 intervjuer gjordes med fyra modersmålslärare i förstaspråk samt med ämneslärare och rektorer från skolorna. Samtliga modersmålslärare hade lång arbetserfarenhet, mellan 19 och 33 år, både i Sverige och utomlands. Modersmålslärarnas undervisningsspråk var turkista, arabiska, kurdiska och urdu. I studien deltog främst nyanlända elever som hade två år eller något färre år bakom sig i den svenska skolan. De yngsta eleverna deltog i reguljära klasser och de äldre eleverna var placerade i förberedelseklass. Eleverna var med om studiehandledning minst en gång i veckan och då behandlades ämnesstoff i omgivningslära, samhällslära, svenska som andraspråk samt matematik. Studiens resultat bör avläsas med kännedom om kontexten.

Reath Warrens studie fokuserade på vilka sätt flerspråkigheten tar sig till uttryck under studiehandledningen och hur dessa praktiker ger stöd åt eleverna till att uppnå lärandemålen i ämnesundervisningen. Analysen resulterade i fem kategorier av observerade flerspråkiga praktiker: omformulera, förklara och diskutera, väcka språklig medvetenhet, väcka uppgiftsmedvetenhet och väcka sociokulturell medvetenhet. Dessa praktiker påträffades under studiehandledning och i intervjuer med lärare och rektorer.

Kategorin omformulera inrymmer praktiker där läraren och eleven använder flera språk för att klargöra mening och vidga kunskap om innehållet. Nyckeltermer översätts både skriftligt och muntligt vilket stöder läsförståelsen. Läraren förklarar begrepp muntligt på ett gemensamt språk och eleven översätter delar av uppgifter i sin övningsbok eller gör ordlistor i häftet.  Kategorin förklara och diskutera inrymmer praktiker där ämnesinnehållet kopplas till elevens förkunskaper genom att det diskuteras på ett gemensamt språk. Eleven förklarar svenska begrepp på sitt förstaspråk för att visa förståelse. Kategorin språklig medvetenhet inrymmer praktiker där man tar explicit fasta på både språkets form och innehåll. I ett utsnitt av forskningsmaterialet diskuteras skillnaden mellan de likartade svenska begreppen glas och glass. Läraren framhäver skillnaden mellan långt och kort vokalljud och eleven ljudar orden. Stavning, ljudning och ordens innebörd diskuteras. Kategorin uppgiftsmedvetenhet inrymmer praktiker där läraren handleder eleven till att möta uppgiftens krav genom fördjupande frågor. Läraren handleder eleven att visa sitt kunnande enligt de förväntningar som finns inbäddade i det svenska utbildningssystemet. Kategorin sociokulturell medvetenhet inrymmer kommunikation som berör elevens skolgång och socialisering på generell basis. Elevens behov förstås utifrån helhetssituationen och handledningens fokus är att lära om livet i det nya samhället.

Studien visade på att flerspråkig kommunikation under studiehandledning uppvisar flera funktioner. I artikeln argumenteras för att flerspråkiga praktiker utvecklar elevens flerspråkiga litteraciteter och ger erkännande för att elevens samtliga språkliga resurser är resurser för lärande. Studiens slutsats blev att flerspråkiga praktiker stödjer flerspråkiga elevers lärande och hjälper dem att uppnå lärandemålen i ämnesundervisningen. Utvecklingen av flerspråkiga litteraciteter stöds kortsiktigt eftersom rätten till studiehandledning avskaffas när eleven bedöms ha tillräckliga färdigheter i svenska. Så även om flerspråkig studiehandledning erkänner elevens tidigare språk som resurs för lärande, sker det på utsatt tid och med det bakomliggande syftet att utveckla majoritetsspråket. Eftersom eleven kan välja bort att läsa modersmål i förstaspråk, kommer utvecklingen av flerspråkiga litteraciteter att avbrytas vid något skede under elevens skolgång.

Emma Sten studerar allmän- och vuxenpedagogik vid Helsingfors universitet. Hon gör sin kandidatavhandling om morgonrutiner i förberedelseklasser.

*Anne Reath Warrens artikel Multilingual study guidance in the Swedish compulsory school and the development of multilingual literacies (2016) hittas här.